Nano-sized particles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) are considered as valuable ultrafine whitening powders and are used in applications such as cosmetics, sunscreens, pharmaceuticals, and high-grade plastics. Alaeddin Abukabda and his research mentor, Dr. Tim Nurkiewicz of the WVU Department of Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, have recently published a paper in the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. Alaeddin studied rats exposed to nano-TiO2 particles and observed that extrapulmonary toxicity is most robust in the arterioles. He determined this using wire myography with larger arteries and pressure myography with arterioles. The mechanism is thought to be endothelium-dependent as the toxicity gradient was observed only in response to acetylcholine (and not sodium nitroprusside nor phenylephrine).