Seminars in Neuroscience

All neuroscience seminars are held on Wednesdays, at 12:30 PM, in room 301 BMRC (Erma Byrd Biomedical Research Center), unless otherwise noted. Check the calendar for the most updated information.

*Beginning in Spring 2019, the Seminars in Neuroscience Series will be held on Mondays, at 12:00 PM, in room 301 BMRC (Erma Byrd Biomedical Research Center), unless otherwise noted. 

Fall 2018

9/5/2018

“Cell-Specific Pallidal Interventions Produce Long-Lasting Motor Recovery in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease”
Dr. Aryn Gittis
Carnegie Mellon University
Host: Dr. Aric Agmon

Synopsis: The identification of distinct cell types in the basal ganglia has been critical to our understanding of its function and the treatment of neurological disorders. The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key contributor to motor suppressing pathways in the basal ganglia, yet its neuronal heterogeneity has remained an untapped resource for therapeutic interventions. We found that optogenetic interventions that dissociate the activity of two neuronal subpopulations in the GPe induce long-lasting recovery of movement in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, revealing potential new cellular targets for improved management of PD motor symptoms.

9/19/2018

“Extracellular vesicles in HIV and neurodegenerative disease: Whose team are they playing for?”
Dr. Kenneth Witwer
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Host: Ashley Russell and Dr. Jim Simpkins

Synopsis: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by all known cell types as membrane-delimited packets of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites, and more. EVs are thought to communicate various messages both locally and distantly in the multicellular organism. In this seminar, we will discuss the interplay of EVs and retroviruses such as HIV and SIV, including the abilities of EVs to drive infammatory responses in the periphery and the central nervous system. The contributions of EVs to propagating effects of  cigarette smoke on the immune system will also be examined. Finally, the importance of studying EVs in tissue, at their most likely site of action, has prompted our group to develop new methods for extracting and characterizing tissue EVs. Progress towards this goal will be highlighted with a view towards future studies of tissue EVs in neurodegeneration.

9/26/2018

“Therapeutic Inflammation and Other Surprises in Ischemic Stroke and Vascular Dementia”
Dr. Gregory Bix
University of Kentucky
Host: Dr. Sophie Ren

Synopsis: A primary event in stroke pathogenesis is the development of local and peripheral inflammatory responses known to contribute to poor outcome and impaired functional recovery. This inflammatory cascade includes the activation of astrocytes, microglia, and peripheral immune cells that infiltrate the brain causing further injury. Post-stroke inflammation is regulated in part by the pro-inflammatory “master” cytokine interleukin-1, and while the role of IL-1 in stroke pathogenesis is well studied, the role of IL-1 remains largely unknown but may be significant as IL-1 brain levels are profoundly affected by stroke. Importantly, clinical studies blocking IL-1 mediated inflammation (with IL-1RA) have failed to produce significant benefit.

10/17/2018

“Circadian genes, rhythms, and the biology of psychiatric disorders”
Dr. Colleen McClung
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Host: Dr. Randy Nelson

Synopsis: Psychiatric disorders like bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, drug addiction and major depression are associated with major disruptions to the sleep wake cycle. I will
discuss recent work from our lab aimed at trying to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which disruptions to circadian rhythms and sleep contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. We use a combination of rodent and human studies for this work and our ultimate goal is to develop better treatments for these disorders.

10/24/2018

“Development of basal ganglia circuits – the long and short of it?”
Dr. Ron Waclaw
Cincinnati Children's Hospital 
Host: Dr. Eric Tucker

Synopsis: The striatum is the major nucleus of the basal ganglia, which contains striatal projection neurons. These GABAergic neurons are divided into two subtypes; the long projecting direct pathway striatal neurons that innervate the substantial nigra pars reticulata and the short projecting indirect pathway striatal neurons that innervate the external segment of the globus pallidus. Balanced output between these two pathways is essential for voluntary movements and cognitive function. My research is focused on understanding the genetic pathways that control striatal projection neuron development from distinct progenitor domains of the ventral forebrain.

11/28/2018

“Breast Cancer and the Brain: What’s the Link?”
Dr. William Walker
Neuroscience Graduate Program
The Ohio State University

Synopsis: Breast cancer is a global health burden. According to the most recent figures from the World Health Organization more than 2 million new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed in 2018. Breast cancer survivors frequently display alterations in metabolism, elevated mood disorders (anxiety and depression), and increased cognitive disturbances. Additionally, breast cancer survivors frequently report increased fatigue and alterations in sleep. However, determining the underlying causes of these deficits has proven to be difficult. In this seminar, we examine the effects of nonmetastatic and metastatic breast cancer on peripheral and central inflammation and behavior. Additionally, we will discuss a novel mechanism by which nonmetastatic breast cancer can alter metabolism and sleep and subsequently increase energy availability for the tumor.

12/5/2018

“Long-Term Consequences of Neurotrauma”
Dr. Rudolph Castellani
Professor & Vice Chair of Pathology Research;
Section Chief of Neuropathology Department of Pathology, Anatomy, & Laboratory Medicine
West Virginia University

Synopsis: A role for traumatic brain injury in downstream neurodegenerative proteinopathy is increasingly accepted in the literature. In depth review of historical and recent literature, however, along with careful assessment of the relevance and limitations of current experimental constructs, suggest that the null hypothesis is still in play. Some
caution is warranted before accepting the notion that traumatic brain injury of whatever severity and whatever degree of repetition causes genuine neurodegenerative disease.

12/12/2018

“NINDS and the Taxpayers Investment in Neuroscience Research”
Dr. Walter Koroshetz
Director
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
National Institutes of Health

Fall 2017

9/20/2017

"Somatotropic signaling is linked to health and aging via metabolism and the epigenome" 
Dr. Holly Brown-Borg 
UND Chester Fritz Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Sciences 
University of North Dakota School of Medicine & Health Sciences 
Host: Dr. Liz Engler-Chiurazzi

Synopsis: Endocrine hormones play a significant role in aging and longevity. Growth hormone (GH) affects not only somatic growth but also drives many aspects of metabolism and stress resistance. We have shown that GH modulates oxidative and methionine metabolism, mitochondrial function and longevity in GH mutant mice. Our studies focus on delineating the relationships between the methionine metabolic pathway and plasma GH levels as they relate to epigenetic stability. Components of the methionine pathway were differentially affected by dietary methionine level. Underlying GH status also influenced the metabolic responses to alterations of this amino acid. Long-living Ames and GHRKO mice were not able to discriminate differences in dietary methionine in terms of lifespan, food consumption and body weight. GH transgenic mice and the wild type mice from each line lived longer when fed methionine-restricted but not methionine-supplemented diets as previously reported. We have examined DNA methylation differences between Ames dwarf and wild type mice and show that Ames mice exhibit a more stable methylation pattern across the genome over time when compared to wild type mice supporting the notion that epigenetic stability contributes to longevity. These studies indicate that GH status impacts dietary methionine sensing and downstream aspects of metabolism including DNA methylation, health and lifespan.

9/27/2017

"The ups and downs of the extended amygdala" 
Dr. Thomas Kash 
Distinguished Professor of Alcohol Studies and Vice Chair for Faculty Development 
Department of Pharmacology 
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, School of Medicine 
Host: Dr. David Siderovski and Josh Gross

10/4/2017

Title TBD 
Dr. Nelson Spruston 
Senior Director of Scientific Programs 
Janelia Research Campus at Howard Hughes Medical Institute 
Host: Dr. George Spirou

10/11/2017

Title TBD 
Dr. Roger Clem 
Associate Professor of Neuroscience and Psychiatry 
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai 
Host: Dr. Albert Berrebi

10/18/2017

Title TBD 
Dr. Theresa Jones 
Professor of Psychology 
University of Texas at Austin 
Host: Dr. Cole Vonder Haar

11/1/2017

Title TBD 
Dr. Teng-Leong Chew 
Center Director, Advanced Imaging Center 
Janelia Research Campus at Howard Hughes Medical Institute 
Host: Dr. George Spirou

11/8/2017

"Multifactorial hypothesis for Alzheimer’s Disease" 
Dr. Chengzin Gong 
Head, Brain Metabolism Laboratory 
Department of Neurochemistry 
New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities 
Host: Dr. Hunter Zhang

Synopsis: The failure of all AD clinical trials on the basis of a single target, especially on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, during the last two decades lets the AD field think seriously what we have done, where we stand now and where we should head to for AD research. We thus propose the multifactorial hypothesis for AD and a multi-target approach based on this hypothesis for AD drug development. I will present evidence supporting this hypothesis and our preclinical studies that target various pathways/mechanisms involved in AD.

Spring 2017

4/5/2017

"Coding and representation of temperature in the Drosophila brain" 
Marco Gallio, PhD 
Assistant Professor of Neurobiology 
Northwestern University 
Host: Dr. Andrew Dacks

Synopsis: Our long term goal is to contribute to our understanding of how sensory stimuli are used to build an internal representation of the physical world, and how this representation is in turn processed into our actions and behaviors. For this, we study temperature sensing and preference in the fruit fly Drosophila. How are hot and cold stimuli detected at the periphery? How are they processed in the brain? How are they integrated with additional sensory streams and internal drives to produce behaviors such as attraction and avoidance? Using the fly as a model system is allowing us to study the basic principles of sensory processing, decision making and motivated behavior in an animal with only 100 thousand neurons, and taking advantage of a highly sophisticated experimental toolkit.

4/12/2017

"Electronic cigarettes: What are they and what do they do?" 
Thomas Eissenberg, PhD 
Professor of Psychology (Health Program) 
Director, Center for the Study of Tobacco Products 
Virginia Commonwealth University 
Host: Dr. Melissa Blank

Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of products that use a heating element to aerosolize for user inhalation a solution made of solvents like propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin, flavorants, and, usually, the stimulant drug nicotine. Nicotine yield is the amount (in milligrams) of nicotine contained in the aerosol that is emitted by the device. Nicotine delivery is the concentration (in nanograms/milliliter) of nicotine found in user blood plasma after ECIG use. Nicotine yield and delivery are influenced by a variety of factors including device power (battery voltage, heater resistance), liquid nicotine concentration, and user behavior. Data demonstrating the influence of these factors on ECIG nicotine yield and delivery will be presented. In addition, the presentation will include a discussion of the variability of nicotine delivery profiles of ECIG products on the US market, some of which delivery very little nicotine while others exceed the nicotine delivery profile of a tobacco cigarette under similar use conditions. These data are relevant to public health today, given the dramatic rise of ECIG use, particularly in populations where nicotine administration has long-term adverse health outcomes (e.g., adolescents). Understanding factors that influence ECIG nicotine delivery is critical for effective ECIG regulation.

4/19/2017

"Noninvasive and bi-directional neural interfaces using ultrasound" 
Parag Chitnis, PhD 
Assistant Professor of Bioengineering 
George Mason University 
Host: Dr. Valeriya Gritsenko

Synopsis: This presentation will highlight recent efforts to develop noninvasive neural interface for detecting and modulating activity in the central or peripheral nervous system. Specifically, we will discuss: 1) feasibility of using photoacoustics for monitoring changes in cell-membrane potential, 2) utility of focused ultrasound for localized modulation of brain activity, and 3) ultrasound-based control of a prosthetic hand.

4/26/2017

"Medications testing for cocaine use disorder: Neurobiological substrates, experimental methods, and FDA requirements" 
Richard De La Garza, PhD 
Professor of Psychiatry Research 
Baylor College of Medicine 
Host: Dr. James Mahoney

Synopsis: Despite decades of testing, there are no FDA-approved treatments for cocaine use disorder. Cocaine itself impacts multiple neurotransmitter systems and these effects are complicated by the fact that cocaine users also abuse tobacco (nicotine), alcohol, and marijuana. As such, the identification and testing of medications for cocaine use disorder is challenging. This lecture will outline the means by which candidate medications are selected and tested in humans.

5/3/2017

"Transforming smells into action" 
Bob Datta, PhD 
Assistant Professor of Neurobiology 
Harvard Medical School 
Host: Dr. Kevin Daly

Synopsis: The Datta lab studies how information from the outside world is detected, encoded in the brain, and transformed into meaningful behavioral outputs. We address this fundamental problem by characterizing the olfactory system, the sensory system used by most animals to interact with their environment. Here we discuss recent results relevant to understanding sensorimotor coupling in the olfactory system. We first describe a novel molecular mechanism that underlies odor perception; this mechanism defines a new mode of sensory encoding in mammals, and is likely relevant to odor perception across deuterostomal lineages, including humans. We also describe new approaches we have recently developed to understand how genes and circuits important to sensorimotor coupling in the olfactory system might impact behavior; these methods may afford insight into mechanisms that allow animals to flexibly navigate the outside world, and serve as a quantitative prism through which the function of genes and neural circuits can be understood.

Fall 2016

9/28/2016

"Invasive cortical neuroprosthetics for sensorimotor science and rehabilitation" 
Robert Gaunt, PhD 
Assistant Professor of Physical Medicine + Rehabilitation 
University of Pittsburgh 
Host: Dr. Sergiy Yakovenko

Synopsis: Over the past decade, several groups have been implanting microelectrode arrays into the sensorimotor cortex of paralyzed individuals. At the University of Pittsburgh, we have worked with two volunteers and have shown that recording and decoding the activity of a few hundred neurons in motor cortex enables a person to control a prosthetic arm in up to 10 degrees-of-freedom simultaneously. But we know that the sensory system is crucially important to regulate ongoing movement and to enable controlled interactions with our environment. In this talk I will focus on our recent efforts to understand how proprioception, that sense of where our limbs are in space, influences motor control using a brain-computer interface and how we might begin to restore cutaneous sensations through electrical microstimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex. Ultimately we aim to restore dexterous hand and arm movements, complete with the appropriate sensory experiences, to people who have lost their limbs or are unable to use them because of injury or disease.

10/5/2016

"GABAergic inhibition in neucortical dendrites" 
Michael Higley, MD, PhD 
Associate Professor of Neurobiology 
Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair (CNNR) 
Kavli Institute for Neuroscience 
Yale School of Medicine    
Host: Dr. Aric Agmon

Synopsis:  The vast majority of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the cortex target pyramidal neuron dendrites, though their function is not well understood.  Using an array of approaches, we show that both phasic and tonic inhibition play key roles in the local regulation of dendritic calcium signaling.  Furthermore, we find that the molecular composition of dendritic inhibitory synapses makes them particularly sensitive to long-term modulation by glutamatergic signaling.  These interactions likely participate in the dynamic rebalancing of excitation and inhibition necessary for the proper function of cortical circuits.

10/19/2016

"Development of interneuronal connectivity: role of primary cilia"  
Eva Anton, PhD  
Professor of Cell Biology + Physiology 
UNC Neuroscience Center  
University of North Carolina School of Medicine 
Host: Dr. Eric Tucker

11/30/2016

"Mechanisms of neuroplasticity following Constraint Induced Movement therapy: implications for rehabilitation planning" 
Lynne Gauthier, PhD  
Associate Professor of Physical Medicine + Rehabilitation  
Director, Neurorecovery + Brain Imaging Laboratory 
The Ohio State University, College of Medicine   
Host: Dr. Valeriya Gritsenko 

Fall 2015

8/26/2015

Paul Barnes, PhD 
Oregon Health & Science University 
Function of Non-Functional Kinases in the Developing Brain 
Host: Dr. Eric Tucker

9/2/2015

Tzumin Lee, MD, PhD 
Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Janelia Farm  
Lineage- and Age-Dependent Neural Stem-Cell Fate 
Host: Dr. George Spirou

9/16/2015

Robert Friedlander, MD 
University of Pittsburgh 
Role of Caspase Pathways in Neurological Disease 
Hosts: Kelly Smith and Dr. Charles Rosen

10/7/2015

Justus Verhagen, PhD 
Yale University 
Time in Olfactory Coding and Perception:  
Optogenetic, Behavioral and Electrophysiological Studies 
Host: Dr. Kevin Daly

10/28/2015

Barry Stein, PhD 
Wake Forest School of Medicine 
How Does the Brain Develop Its Ability to Integrate Information from Different Senses? 
Hosts: Paula Webster and Dr. Richard Dey